Show simple item record

dc.contributor.authorDaniali, Hojjat
dc.contributor.authorRuben, Mollie A.
dc.contributor.authorAslaksen, Per M
dc.contributor.authorFiskum, Charlotte
dc.contributor.authorKaptchuk, Ted J.
dc.contributor.authorFlaten, Magne Arve
dc.description.abstractIntroduction: Studies suggest facial expressions of caregivers may be important in placebo effects; however, this has not been systematically tested. This experiment investigated the effects of caregivers’ singular positive nonverbal behaviours (NBs) on pain reports.<p> <p>Methods: Fifty-one males and 53 females (total of 104) participants were randomized to four groups that were displayed positive facial expressions, tone of voice, body movement, or neutral NBs of videotaped experimenters. Subjective reports of pain, stress, arousal, and cardiac activity were obtained in a pre-test, a conditioning phase, and at a post-test. Four minutes of heat pain was induced in each test, and a placebo cream was administered before the conditioning and post-test in all groups.<p> <p>Results: There were no differences between the NB groups in the reduced pain. Males had larger reduction in pain in the post-test, and females had lower arousal than the opposite sex. During the conditioning, females had larger reduction in pain ie, unconditioned pain response (UPR). In females, the UPR predicted the reinforced expectation ie, increase in expectations from conditioning to post-test, and fear of minor pain negatively predicted both the UPR and reinforced expectation.<p> <p>Discussion: Singular NBs of caregiver were weak to enhance placebo effects. Females had lower pain during conditioning, and the UPR amplitude in females was associated with positive expectations. Moreover, for females, fear of minor pain weakened the UPR and expectations of cream. Conclusion: No NB of caregivers is more effective in reducing pain. Caregivers’ NBs are less effective when displayed individually. Males and females may be different in underlying mechanisms of placebo effects.en_US
dc.identifier.citationDaniali, Ruben, Aslaksen, Fiskum, Kaptchuk, Flaten. The Effect of Singular Nonverbal Behaviours of Experimenters on Pain Reports. Journal of Pain Research. 2024;17:1345-1360en_US
dc.identifier.cristinIDFRIDAID 2266278
dc.publisherDove Pressen_US
dc.relation.journalJournal of Pain Research
dc.rights.holderCopyright 2024 The Author(s)en_US
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)en_US
dc.titleThe Effect of Singular Nonverbal Behaviours of Experimenters on Pain Reportsen_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US

File(s) in this item


This item appears in the following collection(s)

Show simple item record

Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)