Characterisation of the Plasmidome within Enterococcus faecalis Isolated from Marginal Periodontitis Patients in Norway
The present study aimed to identify and characterize plasmids in a national collection of oral Enterococcus faecalis (n = 106) isolated from patients with marginal periodontitis. Plasmid replicon typing was performed by multiplex-PCR and sequencing with specific primers for 18 rep-families and 1 unique sequence. Additional plasmid analysis by S1-PFGE was performed for comparison. Totally 120 plasmid replicon amplicons of seven rep-families were identified in 93 E. faecalis strains, e.g. rep9 (prototype pCF10), rep6 (prototype pS86), rep2 (prototype pRE25/pEF1), and rep8 (prototype pAM373). Rep9 was the most predominant rep-family being detected in 81 (76.4%) strains. Forty of these strains were tetracycline resistant and three were erythromycin resistant. Rep6 was the second predominant rep-family being detected in 22 (20.8%) strains. Rep2 was detected in eight (7.5%) strains. All rep2-positive strains were resistant to tetracycline and/or erythromycin and six of them contained Tn916/Tn1545 genes. The rep-positive E. faecalis exhibited divergence in multilocus sequence types (STs). There was a significant correlation between rep9 and ST21, while multiple rep-families appeared in ST40. Totally 145 plasmid bands were identified in 95 E. faecalis strains by S1-PFGE, 59 strains carrying one plasmid, 27 carrying two, five carrying three, three carrying four, and one strain carrying five plasmids. Plasmid sizes varied between 5–150 kbp. There was a significant correlation between the number of plasmids identified by PCR rep-typing and by S1-PFGE. The results indicate that the majority of E. faecalis of marginal periodontitis are likely to be a reservoir for diverse mobile genetic elements and associated antimicrobial resistance determinants.
PublisherPublic Library of Science (PLoS)
CitationPLoS ONE (2013), vol. 8(4): e62248
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