Smoking duration before first childbirth: an emerging risk factor for breast cancer? Results from 302,865 Norwegian women
AuthorBjerkaas, Eivind; Parajuli, Ranjan; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Engeland, Anders; Gertraud, Maskarinec; Selmer, Randi; Gram, Inger Torhild
Purpose: Recently, The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified cigarette smoking as possibly carcinogenic to the human breast. Since some new cohort studies have suggested that this risk is confined to women who started to smoke before first childbirth, we wanted to examine the association between smoking and breast cancer, with a focus on time of smoking initiation in relation to the first childbirth. Methods: We followed 302,865 Norwegian women born between 1899 and 1975, recruited from 1974 to 2003, by linkage to national registries through December 2007. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI). Results: During more than 4.1 million person-years of follow-up, we ascertained 7,490 cases of primary invasive breast cancer. Compared with never smokers, ever smokers had a 15 % (HR = 1.15, 95 % CI 1.10–1.21) increased risk of breast cancer overall and also a significantly increased risk of breast cancer in the three most exposed categories of age at smoking initiation (parous women), number of cigarettes smoked per day, years of smoking duration and number of pack-years. Ever smokers who started to smoke more than 1 year after the first childbirth had not an increased risk (HR = 0.93, 95 % CI 0.86–1.02), while those who initiated smoking more than 10 years before their first childbirth had a 60 % (HR = 1.60, 95 % CI 1.42–1.80) increased risk of breast cancer, compared with never smokers.
This article is part of Eivind Bjerkaas' doctoral thesis which is available in Munin at http://hdl.handle.net/10037/6799
CitationCancer Causes and Control 24(2013) nr. 7 s. 1347-1356 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-013-0213-1)
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