• A note on measuring the effects of exchange rate changes on Norwegian exports of seafood 

      Myrland, Øystein (Working paper; Arbeidsnotat, 2002-09)
      The purpose of this note is to develop a very simple, yet consistent structural model of the Norwegian seafood trade that highlights how trade flows and prices are affected by changes in exchange rates. By using a class of models called Equilibrium Displacement Models (EDM’s) the model is solved for the reduced-form elasticities to indicate the effects exchange rates changes has on producer ...
    • Distributional effects of marine protected areas. A study of the North-East Atlantic cod fishery 

      Sumaila, Ussif Rashid; Armstrong, Claire W. (Working paper; Arbeidsnotat, 2003-01)
      This paper studies the distributional effects of the implementation of a marine protected area (MPA) for the North-East Atlantic cod stock. A bioeconomic cohort model with two agents targeting different age groups is used to examine how the establishment of an MPA may affect the payoffs to the two main vessel types used to exploit cod, namely, trawlers and coastal vessels. Cooperative and ...
    • Conservation of wildlife. A bio-economic model of a wildlife reserve under the pressure of habitat destruction and harvesting outside the reserve 

      Skonhoft, Anders; Armstrong, Claire W. (Working paper; Arbeidsnotat, 2003-09)
      Biodiversity is today threatened by many factors of which destruction and reduction of habitats are considered most important for terrestrial species. One way to counteract these threats is to establish reserves with restrictions on land-use and exploitation. However, very few reserves can be considered islands, wildlife species roam over large expanses, often via some density dependent dispersal ...
    • Quotas, marine reserves and fishing the line. When does marine reserve creation pay? 

      Reithe, Siv (Working paper; Arbeidsnotat, 2003-11)
      This paper explores the issue of using marine reserves in combination with quotas as fisheries management tools using a patchy environment model as the biological foundation. The rent generated by fishing on the total population, using optimal quotas as a management tool, is compared to the rent from the fishery when managed with quotas and a marine reserve. This is done under different assumptions ...
    • Using history dependence to design a dynamic tradeable quota system under market imperfections 

      Armstrong, Claire W. (Working paper; Arbeidsnotat, 2003-11)
      A transferable quota system is analysed in a two-period model with market power. So far, the management mechanisms presented in the literature to remedy market power have either not succeeded in securing efficiency in the distribution of quota within and across time periods, or have resulted in only one of the two inefficiencies being eliminated. In this paper a new mechanism is introduced where ...
    • Do incumbents have incentives to degrade interconnection quality in the internet? 

      Foros, Øystein; Sand, Jan Yngve; Kind, Hans Jarle (Working paper; Arbeidsnotat, 2003-12)
      In this paper we analyze the interconnection incentives for firms that have an installed base of customers and that also compete for new customers. We show that the small firm may be harmed in the competition for new customers if the customers in the installed bases are charged a high price, since this makes the large firm more aggressive. It is also shown that the price charged to the installed ...
    • Regulation of a vertically differentiated duopoly 

      Sand, Jan Yngve (Working paper; Arbeidsnotat, 2003-12)
      This paper focuses on the optimal quality regulation of vertically differentiated duopolies in the presence of asymmetric information. In the model presented there are cross-effects on the information rent. Contrary to standard single-agent models, the production levels are distorted in favour of the most efficient firm, whose production level is increased under asymmetric information relative ...
    • Regulation and foreclosure 

      Sand, Jan Yngve (Working paper; Arbeidsnotat, 2003-12)
      The paper considers the optimal regulation of access charges, and the effect such regulation has on incentives to foreclose downstream rival firms. I show that when a vertically integrated firm is able to discriminate against rivals by means of non-price measures, optimal access charges must be set higher than in the case when no discrimination is possible and will always provide a positive ...
    • Should environmental projects be subsidised? An empirical analysis 

      Aanesen, Margrethe (Working paper; Arbeidsnotat, 2003-12)
      Imperfect markets, asymmetric information and transboundary pollution are all characteristics that in most cases lead to inefficient “market” outcomes, and which thus are arguments for (public) intervention in the market. On the other hand, these characteristics also imply strategic behaviour by the economic agents, and then the effects of public intervention may be different from the traditional ...
    • Excess entry in vertically related markets 

      Sand, Jan Yngve (Working paper; Arbeidsnotat, 2003-12)
      This paper considers the problem of excess entry in vertically related markets when the regulator can regulate market structure and access charges. The endogenous access charge introduces an asymmetry between firms which affects the degree of excess entry. I find that the excess entry result of Mankiw and Whinston (1986) does not generally carry over to vertically related markets. It is shown ...
    • Livssykluser og priseffekter i boligmarkedet: Effekter fra husholdningenes flyttetilbørlighet 

      Borgersen, Trond-Arne; Greibrokk, Jørund; Koekebakker, Steen (Research report; Forskningsrapport, 2004)
    • Should foreign producers oppose domestic state aid? 

      Østbye, Stein (Working paper; Arbeidsnotat, 2004-03)
      Can subsidies to domestic producers, de facto, be subsidies to foreign producers? If so, state aid may distort competition to the advantage of the foreign producers. At the same time, governments often oppose subsidies elsewhere, claiming that their industry is hurt. The possibility that governments fight subsidies on these grounds, although the effects are to the contrary, constitutes what is called ...
    • Government financial transfers to the fish harvesting, processing and aquaculture industries Norway 1990 - 2002 

      Hermansen, Øystein; Flåten, Ola (Working paper; Arbeidsnotat, 2004-03)
      This report investigates and quantifies Norwegian governmental financial transfers (GFT) to primarily the fish harvesting industry, but also the fish processing and aquaculture industries. Focus is on the period 1990 to 2002. The data sources for this report are mainly public accounts of the Ministry of Fisheries, that channelled the bulk of support measures. We also rely heavily on a set of ...
    • The translog neoclassical growth model 

      Østbye, Stein (Working paper; Arbeidsnotat, 2004-03)
      The macroeconomic growth equation based on the translog aggregate production function is derived and compared to the growth equation based on Cobb-Douglas both with and without human capital. The model is estimated directly in structural form, using international panel data. Results are compared to the Cobb-Douglas case and a conventional fixed effect model.
    • Marine reserves. A bio-economic model with asymmetric density dependent migration 

      Skonhoft, Anders; Armstrong, Claire W. (Working paper; Arbeidsnotat, 2004-10)
      A static bioeconomic model of a marine reserve is introduced, allowing asymmetric density dependent migration between the reserve and the fishable area. This allows for habitat or ecosystem differences within and outside a reserve not described in earlier studies. Four scenarios are studied; a) maximum harvest, b) maximum current profit, c) open access and d) maximum sustainable yield (MSY) in ...
    • Kappfiske - problem eller løsning? 

      Flåten, Ola; Hermansen, Øystein (Working paper; Arbeidsnotat, 2005-02)
      Landingene av torsk i Norge er sterkt sesongvarierte. Fangstene i første halvår i årene 1983- 84 utgjorde om lag 85 % av årets totalfangst. I 1986-88 var andelen sunket til om lag 70 %, mens den steg til 80 % i 1999-2000 og til 90 % i 2001-02. Dette landingsmønsteret for kystflåtens fangster av torskefisk er et resultat av en rekke faktorer; fiskens tilgjengelighet, kvalitet, pris, flåtestruktur, ...
    • On the economics of ecological nuisance 

      Skonhoft, Anders; Schulz, Carl-Erik (Working paper; Arbeidsnotat, 2005-03)
      This paper analyses the economics of pest and nuisance relating to wild animals. It studies stylised models where wild animals represent a direct nuisance to agricultural production through grazing and crop damage. Such damage is particularly relevant in poor rural communities, where people are dependent on livestock and crop production and at the same time are living close to nature and wildlife. ...
    • Fragmented property rights, R & D and market structure 

      Clark, Derek J.; Konrad, Kai A. (Working paper; Arbeidsnotat, 2005-04)
      Fragmented property rights can be a factor that limits firms’ willingness to invest in the development and commercialization of new products. This paper studies the interaction between markets for products and markets for intellectual property rights (patents) where product innovation requires several complementary patents, each of which is obtained as the result of a patent race. We show that ...
    • Contingent payments in selection contests 

      Riis, Christian; Clark, Derek J. (Working paper; Arbeidsnotat, 2005-04)
      The early literature on research contests stressed the advantages of a fixed prize in inspiring R&D effort. More recently the focus has moved towards endogenizing the rewards to research activity in these tournament settings, since this can induce extra effort or enhance the surplus of the buyer. We focus on a research contest as a means of selecting a partner for an R&D enterprise, in an ...
    • Tournaments with multi-tasking 

      Konrad, Kai A.; Clark, Derek J. (Working paper; Arbeidsnotat, 2005-08)
      The standard contest model in which participants compete in a single dimension is well understood and documented. In this paper we propose an extension in which competition ensues in several dimensions and a competitor that wins a certain number of these is awarded a prize. We look at the design of this contest from the point of view of maximizing effort in the contest (per dimension and totally), ...