Now showing items 1-20 of 2383

    • Ecophysiological Responses of Sea Ice Algae and Phytoplankton to a Changing Arctic 

      Kvernvik, Ane Cecilie (Doctoral thesis; Doktorgradsavhandling, 2019-03-29)
      The ice-covered seas of the Arctic have two major types of primary producers; phytoplankton growing in open waters and sea ice algae growing within and on the underside of the sea ice. This thesis investigates the controlling role of light availability on Arctic pelagic and sympagic (i.e. ice-associated) algae, and how light-induced responses are modulated by NO3 and pCO2 levels. A combination of ...
    • Implementation of ecosystem-based ocean management 

      Sander, Gunnar (Doctoral thesis; Doktorgradsavhandling, 2019-03-29)
      Ecosystem-based management (EBM) is a holistic approach for nature management that aims at achieving the good health and sustainable use of ecosystems. It is a complex and challenging concept: understanding ecosystems and human impacts upon them is complicated, there are demanding needs for collaboration and harmonisation of approaches and policies, and many conflicting interests must be balanced. ...
    • Causes and consequences of ontogenetic dietary shifts: a global synthesis using fish models 

      Sanchez-Hernandez, Javier; Nunn, Andy D; Adams, Colin Ean; Amundsen, Per-Arne (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-09-24)
      Ontogenetic dietary shifts (ODSs), the changes in diet utilisation occurring over the life span of an individual consumer, are widespread in the animal kingdom. Understanding ODSs provides fundamental insights into the biological and ecological processes that function at the individual, population and community levels, and is critical for the development and testing of hypotheses around key concepts ...
    • The transformation of the oceans and the future of marine social science 

      Arbo, Peter; Knol, Maaike; Linke, Sebastian; St. Martin, Kevin John (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-04-13)
      The oceans have become a juncture of great visions of blue growth as well as strong environmental concern. This paper discusses the essential role of the social sciences as the oceans increasingly emerge as a contested social arena. The marine social sciences have generated a vast knowledge about the development of fisheries and the implications of fisheries policies on coastal communities. We review ...
    • Policy Support for Women Entrepreneurs' Access to Financial Capital: Evidence from Canada, Germany, Ireland, Norway, and the United States 

      Coleman, Susan; Henry, Colette; Orser, Barbara; Foss, Lene; Welter, Friederike (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-10-22)
      This cross‐country study documents policies and practices designed to increase women entrepreneurs’ access to financial capital in Canada, Germany, Ireland, Norway, and the United States. Drawing on feminist theory, we examine assumptions of policy alongside the eligibility criteria, rules and regulations of practices. Our findings reveal that four of the five country policies examined were predicated ...
    • Prevalence of brucellosis among patients attending Wau Hospital, South Sudan 

      Madut, Nuol Aywel; Nasinyama, George William; Muma, John Bwalya; Sube, Kenneth L L; Ocan, Moses; Muwonge, Adrian; Godfroid, Jacques; Jubara, Ambrose Samuel; Kankya, Clovice (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-06-27)
      Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of public health importance; its prevalence varies globally. In low-income countries, brucellosis is an endemic and neglected disease affecting both animals and humans. This study was intended to establish brucellosis sero-prevalence among patients attending Wau hospital, South Sudan. Across sectional study, was done among randomly selected patients attending Wau ...
    • Getting ready for the winter: timing and determinants of molt in an alpine ungulate 

      Déry, F.; Hamel, Sandra; Cote, Steeve D. (Mastergradsoppgave; Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel, 2019-02-14)
      Because growth of new hairs entails energetic costs, individual condition and access to food should determine the timing of molt. Previous studies on the timing of molt in ungulates have mostly focused on the influence of age class and reproductive status, but the effects of body condition and environmental phenology have not been evaluated. Our goal was to assess how intrinsic traits and environmental ...
    • A life after Research? First Release of Harp Seals (Phoca groenlandica) after Temporary Captivity for Scientific Purposes 

      Blanchet, Marie-Anne; Acquarone, Mario; Biuw, Martin; Larsen, Roger B.; Nordøy, Erling Sverre; Folkow, Lars (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-07-08)
      Three wild-caught female harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus) from the Greenland Sea stock were brought into temporary captivity in connection with a controlled validation study on energetics. The two pups and one adult were kept in two indoor and outdoor experimental facilities approved by the Norwegian Animal Research Authority. They were trained daily using operant conditioning to participate ...
    • CpGs Induce Differentiation of Atlantic Salmon Mononuclear Phagocytes Into Cells With Dendritic Morphology and a Proinflammatory Transcriptional Profile but an Exhausted Allostimulatory Activity 

      Iliev, Dimitar Borisov; Lagos, Leidy; Thim, Hanna Leena; Jørgensen, Sven Martin; Krasnov, Aleksei; Jørgensen, Jorunn B (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2019-03-13)
      Due to their ability to present foreign antigens and prime naïve T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs) are referred to as professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Although activated macrophages may function as APCs, these cells are particularly effective at directly engaging pathogens through phagocytosis, and production of antimicrobial compounds. On the other hand, DCs possess superb ...
    • Rethinking capitalist transformation of fisheries in South Africa and India 

      Menon, Ajit; Sowman, Merle; Bavinck, Jan Maarten (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      The industrialization of fisheries and the growth of a capitalist sector within fisheries have received considerable scholarly attention. For the most part, scholars have emphasized how capitalism has led to privatization of the commons, forced small-scale resource users into wage labor, and marginalized the sector. This analysis does not, however, explain the continued presence of such a vibrant ...
    • Immunological response to Brucella abortus strain 19 vaccination of cattle in a communal area in South Africa 

      Simpson, Gregory; Marcotty, Tanguy; Rouille, Elodie; Chilundo, Abel; Letteson, Jean-Jacques; Godfroid, Jacques (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-03-29)
      Brucellosis is of worldwide economic and public health importance. Heifer vaccination with live attenuated <i>Brucella abortus</i> strain 19 (S19) is the cornerstone of control in low- and middle-income countries. Antibody persistence induced by S19 is directly correlated with the number of colony-forming units (CFU) per dose. There are two vaccination methods: a ‘high’ dose (5–8 × 10<sup>10</sup> ...
    • Antiviral Responses and Biological Concequences of Piscine orthoreovirus Infection in Salmonid Erythrocytes 

      Wessel, Øystein; Krasnov, Aleksei; Timmerhaus, Gerrit; Rimstad, Espen; Dahle, Maria (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2019-01-16)
      Salmonid red blood cells are the main target cells for <i>Piscine orthoreovirus</i> (PRV). Three genotypes of PRV (PRV-1,2,3) infect Atlantic salmon (<i>Salmo salar</i>), Chinook salmon (<i>Onchorhynchus tshawytscha</i>), Coho salmon (<i>Oncorhynchus kisutch</i>), rainbow trout (<i>Onchorhynchus mykiss</i>) and brown trout (<i>Salmo trutta</i>), and can cause diseases like heart and skeletal muscle ...
    • Characterization of Microbial Communities in Pilot-Scale Constructed Wetlands with Salicornia for Treatment of Marine Aquaculture Effluents 

      Ma, Xiaona; Song, Xingqiang; Li, Xian; Fu, Songzhe; Li, Meng; Liu, Ying (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-04-29)
      Microorganisms play an essential role in the performance of constructed wetlands (CWs) for wastewater treatment. However, there has been limited discussion on the characteristics of microbial communities in CWs for treatment of effluents from marine recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). This study is aimed at characterizing the microbial communities of pilot-scale CWs with <i>Salicornia bigelovii</i> ...
    • How vulnerable is the European seafood production to climate warming? 

      Blanchet, Marie-Anne; Primicerio, Raul; Smalås, Aslak; Arias-Hansen, Juliana; Aschan, Michaela (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-10-16)
      The main challenge for the European seafood industry is to ensure sustainable production volume while adapting to climate warming. Marine fisheries mainly target 41 species which account for 80% of the seafood production in Europe. The remaining 20% comes from marine and freshwater aquaculture, which harvest mainly 5 and 11 species, respectively. European seafood production volume (2004–2014) recorded ...
    • Biogenic silica production and diatom dynamics in the Svalbard region during spring 

      Krause, J. W.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Marquez, I. A.; Assmy, Phillipp; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Wiedmann, Ingrid; Wassmann, Paul; Kristiansen, Svein; Agusti, Susana (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-11-06)
      Diatoms are generally the dominant contributors to the Arctic Ocean spring bloom, which is a key event in regional food webs in terms of capacity for secondary production and organic matter export. Dissolved silicic acid is an obligate nutrient for diatoms and has been declining in the European Arctic since the early 1990s. The lack of regional silicon cycling information precludes understanding the ...
    • Functional roles and redundancy of demersal Barents Sea fish: Ecological implications of environmental change 

      Aune, Magnus; Aschan, Michaela; Greenacre, Michael; Dolgov, Andrey V.; Fossheim, Maria; Primicerio, Raul (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-11-21)
      When facing environmental change and intensified anthropogenic impact on marine ecosystems, extensive knowledge of how these systems are functioning is required in order to manage them properly. However, in high-latitude ecosystems, where climate change is expected to have substantial ecological impact, the ecosystem functions of biological species have received little attention, partly due to the ...
    • External damage to trawl-caught Northeast arctic cod (Gadus morhua): Effect of codend design 

      Tveit, Guro Møen; Sistiaga, Manu Berrondo; Herrmann, Bent; Brinkhof, Jesse (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2019-02-22)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent of external damage (gear marks, pressure injuries, ecchymosis and skin abrasion) present on trawl-caught cod (Gadus morhua) and to examine whether the extent of damage could be reduced by introducing changes in the gear. We tested whether changing the 2-panel knotted codend used by the Norwegian trawler fleet operating in the Barents Sea today ...
    • On the numerous concepts in invasion biology 

      Falk-Petersen, Jannike; Bøhn, Thomas; Sandlund, Odd Terje (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2006-01-20)
      The study of biological invasions has triggered the production of a diversity of concepts. The terminology has, however, often been applied inconsistently and inaccurately. This article lists and assesses the most commonly used terms and concepts in invasion ecology. In each case the most coherent definition and use is suggested.
    • Holistic Assessment of Rumen Microbiome Dynamics through Quantitative Metatranscriptomics Reveals Multifunctional Redundancy during Key Steps of Anaerobic Feed Degradation 

      Söllinger, Andrea; Tveit, Alexander Tøsdal; Poulsen, Morten; Noel, Samantha Joan; Bengtsson, Mia M. B.; Bernhardt, Jörg; Hellwing, Anne L. Frydendahl; Lund, Peter; Riedel, Katharina; Schleper, Christa; Ole, Højberg; Urich, Tim (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-08-07)
      Ruminant livestock is a major source of the potent greenhouse gas methane. The complex rumen microbiome, consisting of bacteria, archaea, and microbial eukaryotes, facilitates anaerobic plant biomass degradation in the cow rumen, leading to methane emissions. Using an integrated approach combining multidomain quantitative metatranscriptomics with gas and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiling, we ...
    • Creativity in Science - Scientific Essay 

      Strøm, Heidi Angell (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-12-13)
      Modern science is expected to generate new knowledge and understanding. In this scientific essay, I wish to explore the field of creativity in science by contributing a theoretical perspective on creativity and the creative process, which will include exemplifying different factors that promote or inhibit creativity, as well as reflecting on creativity in my own research project. In addition, I ...