Maternal functional hemodynamics in the second half of pregnancy: A longitudinal study
Objective: Cardiovascular response to passive leg raising (PLR) is useful in assessing preload reserve, but it has not been studied longitudinally during pregnancy. We aimed to investigate gestational age associated serial changes in maternal functional hemodynamics and establish longitudinal reference ranges for the second half of pregnancy. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective longitudinal study on 98 healthy pregnant women who were examined 3–5 times during 20–40 weeks of gestation (a total of 441 observations). Maternal cardiac function and systemic hemodynamics were assessed at baseline and 90 seconds after PLR using impedance cardiography (ICG). The main outcome measures were gestational age specific changes in ICG-derived variables of maternal cardiovascular function and functional hemodynamic response to PLR. Results: Hemodynamic response to PLR varied during pregnancy. PLR led to an insignificant increase in stroke volume during 20+0 to 31+6 weeks, but later in gestation the stroke volume was slightly lower at PLR compared to baseline. PLR caused no significant change in cardiac output between 20+0 and 23+6 weeks and a significant decrease after 24+0 weeks. A decrease in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and cardiac contractility was observed during PLR throughout the second half of pregnancy. Systemic vascular resistance was reduced by PLR up to 32+0 weeks, but increased slightly thereafter. Conclusion: Healthy pregnant women appear to have limited preload reserve and reduced cardiac contractility, especially in the third trimester, which makes them vulnerable to fluid overload and cardiac failure.
PublisherPublic Library of Science (PLoS)
CitationPLoS ONE 10(8): e0135300 (2015)
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