Timed Up and Go in People with Subjective Cognitive Decline Is Associated with Faster Cognitive Deterioration and Cortical Thickness
AuthorBorda, Miguel Germán; Ferreira, Daniel; Selnes, Per; Tovar-Rios, Diego Alejandro; Jaramillo-Jiménez, Alberto; Kirsebom, Bjørn-Eivind; Garcia-Cifuentes, Elkin; Dalaker, Turi Olene; Oppedal, Ketil; Sønnesyn, Hogne; Fladby, Tormod; Aarsland, Dag
Introduction: Early markers of neurodegeneration provide an opportunity to detect, monitor, and initiate interventions in individuals who have an increased risk of developing dementia. Here, we investigated whether the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test is associated with early brain neurodegeneration and whether the TUG test could be a marker of cognitive decline in people with subjective cognitive decline (SCD).
Methods: This is a longitudinal analysis of the Dementia Disease Initiation Study, a prospective, community-based, cohort study from Norway, designed to investigate early markers of cognitive impairment and dementia. Participants were classified as SCD and healthy controls (HC). The main studied variables were the TUG test and cognition as measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease memory composite score. Additionally, we investigated the cross-sectional association of brain morphology with the TUG using 1.5T-MRI.
Results: The sample included 45 participants (SCD = 21, HC = 24) followed during a mean time of 1.50 ± 0.70 years. At baseline, the cognitive performance did not differ between the groups, but TUG was longer in SCD. Slower baseline TUG was associated with a faster cognitive decline in both groups and it was also associated with reduced cortical thickness especially in motor, executive, associative, and somatosensory cortical regions in people with SCD.
Discussion/Conclusion: TUG predicted cognitive change in individuals with SCD, and there was a negative association between TUG and cortical thickness. TUG is a promising cheap and noninvasive marker of early cognitive decline and may help initiate interventions in individuals who have an increased risk of dementia.