SIRT1 - a new mammalian substrate of nuclear autophagy
Macroautophagic/autophagic degradation of nuclear components (or nuclear autophagy) is a poorly understood area in autophagy research. We previously reported the nuclear lamina protein LMNB1 (lamin B1) as a nuclear autophagy substrate in primary human cells, stimulating the investigation of nuclear autophagy in the mammalian system. We recently reported the sirtuin protein SIRT1 as a new selective substrate of nuclear autophagy in senescence and aging. Upon senescence of primary human cells, SIRT1 degradation is mediated by a direct nuclear SIRT1-LC3 interaction, followed by nucleus-to-cytoplasm shuttling of SIRT1 and autophagosome-lysosome degradation. In vivo, SIRT1 is downregulated by lysosomes in hematopoietic and immune organs upon natural aging in mice and in aged human T cells. Our study identified another substrate of nuclear autophagy and suggests a new strategy to promote SIRT1-mediated health benefits by suppressing its autophagic degradation.