Polymorphisms on PAI-1 and ACE genes in association with fibrinolytic bleeding after on-pump cardiac surgery
AuthorOzolina, Agnese; Strike, Eva; Nikitina-Zake, Liene; Jaunalksne, Inta; Krumina, Angelika; Lacis, Romans; Bjertnæs, Lars J.; Vanags, Indulis
Methods: We assessed PAI-1 -844 A/G, and ACE intron 16 I/D polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction technique and direct sequencing of genomic DNA from 83 open heart surgery patients that we have presented earlier. As primary outcome, accumulated chest tube drainage (CTD) at 4 and 24 h were analyzed for association with genetic polymorphisms. As secondary outcome, differences in plasma levels of PAI-1, t-PA/PAI-1 complex and D-dimer were determined for each polymorphism. SPSS® was used for statistical evaluation.
Results: The lowest preoperative PAI-1 plasma levels were associated with PAI-1 -844 genotype G/G, and higher CTD, as compared with genotype A/A at 4 and 24 h after surgery. Correspondingly, 4 h after the surgery CTD was higher in carriers of ACE intron 16 genotype I/I, as compared with genotype D/D. PAI-1 plasma levels and t-PA/PAI-1 complex reached nadir in carriers of ACE intron 16 genotype I/I, in whom we also noticed the highest D-dimer levels immediately after surgery. Notably, carriers of PAI-1 -844 genotype G/G displayed higher D-dimer levels at 24 h after surgery as compared with those of genotype A/G.
Conclusions: Increased postoperative blood loss secondary to enhanced fibrinolysis was associated with carriers of PAI-1 -844 G/G and ACE Intron 16 I/I, suggesting that these genotypes might predict increased postoperative blood loss after cardiac surgery using CPB.