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  • Cercariae of a Bird Schistosome Follow a Similar Emergence Pattern under Different Subarctic Conditions: First Experimental Study 

    Soldánová, Miroslava; Born-Torrijos, Ana; Kristoffersen, Roar; Knudsen, Rune; Amundsen, Per-Arne; Scholz, Tomas (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2022-06-03)
    The emergence of cercariae from infected mollusks is considered one of the most important adaptive strategies for maintaining the trematode life cycle. Short transmission opportunities of cercariae are often compensated by periodic daily rhythms in the cercarial release. However, there are virtually no data on the cercarial emergence of bird schistosomes from freshwater ecosystems in northern ...
  • Temporal patterns in the soundscape of a Norwegian gateway to the Arctic 

    Aniceto, Ana Sofia; Ferguson, Elizabeth L.; Pedersen, Geir; Tarroux, Arnaud; Primicerio, Raul (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2022-05-10)
    As an Arctic gateway, the Norwegian Sea sustains a rich diversity of seasonal and resident species of soniferous animals, vulnerable to the efects of climate change and anthropogenic activities. We show the occurrence of seasonal patterns of acoustic signals in a small canyon of Northern Norway, and investigate cetacean vocal behavior, human-made noise, and climatic contributions to underwater ...
  • The Sub-Ice Algal Communities of the Barents Sea Pack Ice: Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Biomass and Species 

    Hegseth, Else Nøst; von Quillfeldt, Cecilie (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2022-01-27)
    This work summarizes ice algal studies, presented as biomass and species temporal and spatial distribution, during 11 cruises conducted between 1986 and 2012. The majority of the biomass was found as loosely attached sub-ice algal layers, and sampling required diving. A maximum of 40 mg chlorophyll m<sup>−2</sup> and 15.4 × 10<sup>9</sup> cells m<sup>−2</sup> was measured in May. The species ...
  • Contributions and perspectives of Indigenous Peoples to the study of mercury in the Arctic 

    Lennert, Ann Eileen; Houde, Magali; Krümmel, Eva M.; Mustonen, tero; Brammer, Jeremy; Brown, Tanya M.; Chételat, John; Dahl, Parnuna Egede; Dietz, Rune; Evans, Marlene; Gamberg, Mary; Gauthier, Marie-Josée; Gérin-Lajoie, José; Hauptmann, Aviaja Lyberth; Heath, Joel P.; Henri, Dominique A.; Kirk, Jane; Laird, Brian; Lemire, Mélanie; Letcher, Robert J.; Lord, Sarah; Loseto, Lisa; MacMillan, Gwyneth A.; Mikaelsson, Stefan; Mutter, Edda A.; O'Hara, Todd; Ostertag, Sonja; Robards, Martin; Shadrin, Vyacheslav; Smith, Merran; Stimmelmayr, Raphaela; Sudlovenick, Enooyaq; Swanson, Heidi; Thomas, Philippe J.; Walker, Virginia K.; Whiting, Alex (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2022-06-11)
    Arctic Indigenous Peoples are among the most exposed humans when it comes to foodborne mercury (Hg). In response, Hg monitoring and research have been on-going in the circumpolar Arctic since about 1991; this work has been mainly possible through the involvement of Arctic Indigenous Peoples. The present overview was initially conducted in the context of a broader assessment of Hg research organized ...
  • Progression in humpback whale song structure and complexity on a subarctic feeding ground in Northern Norway 

    Martin, Saskia C. (Master thesis; Mastergradsoppgave, 2021-08-16)
    Male humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) sing structurally complex songs traditionally associated with low latitude breeding grounds. This vocal behaviour is increasingly reported outside these areas. All singers in a given population sing the same version of a song that is constantly evolving with modifications on different levels within the song structure. This study provides the first detailed ...
  • Estimating the Effect of Transaction Costs Using the Tick Size as a Proxy 

    Sirnes, Espen (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2022-04-08)
    A method is proposed for estimating the effect of transaction costs on volatility, using the tick size as a proxy. The method involves three steps: (1) collect only the cases in which the tick size changes from one regime to another; (2) estimate the effect with and without the order book size; and (3) use local data on the tick size and volatility but instruments from international markets. The ...
  • Modelling the effect of submarine iceberg melting on glacier-adjacent water properties 

    Davison, Benjamin Joseph; Cowton, Tom; Sole, Andrew; Cottier, Finlo Robert; Nienow, Pete (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2022-04-07)
    The rate of ocean-driven retreat of Greenland’s tidewater glaciers remains highly uncertain in predictions of future sea level rise, in part due to poorly constrained glacier-adjacent water properties. Icebergs and their meltwater contributions are likely important modifiers of fjord water properties, yet their effect is poorly understood. Here, we use a 3-D ocean circulation model, coupled to ...
  • Teknologioverføring fra petroleum til havbruk. En studie av utviklingsprosjektet Arctic Offshore Farming 

    Aunan, Andreas (Master thesis; Mastergradsoppgave, 2022-05-16)
    Temaet for denne oppgaven er det nye samspillet mellom petroleum og oppdrett og hva det betyr for næringsutvikling. Hensikten med denne studien er å belyse muligheter og begrensninger for teknologioverføring fra petroleum til oppdrett, og hvordan teknologioverføringen foregår, sett i lys av utviklingstillatelsene i havbruk med utviklingsprosjektet Arctic Offshore Farming som eksempel. For å besvare ...
  • Vaccine Adjuvants Induce Formation of Intraperitoneal Extracellular Traps in Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) 

    Li, Qian; Chi, Heng; Shi, Xueyan; Gan, Qiujie; Dalmo, Roy Ambli; Sun, Yuan-Yuan; Tang, Xiaoqian; Xing, Jing; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Zhan, Wenbin (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2022-03-30)
    Adjuvants are used to increase the strength, quality, and duration of the immune response of vaccines. Neutrophils are the first immune cells that arrive at the injection site and can release DNA fibers together with granular proteins, so-called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), to entrap microbes in a sticky matrix of extracellular chromatin and microbicidal agents. Similar extracellular ...
  • Sustainable management of populations impacted by harvesting and climate change 

    Stenseth, Nils Christian; Ims, Rolf Anker; Sæther, Bernt-Erik; Cadahia, Luis; Herfindal, Ivar; Lee, Aline Magdalena; Whittington, Jason D; Yoccoz, Nigel (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2022-01-13)
    The sustainable use of natural resources is critical for addressing the global challenges of today. Strategies for sustainable harvesting need to consider not only harvested species, but also other non-harvested species interacting with them in the same ecosystem. In addition, environmental variation needs to be considered, with climate change currently being one of the main sources of this ...
  • Optimizing size selectivity and catch patterns for hake (Merluccius merluccius) and blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) by combining square mesh panel and codend designs 

    Cuende, Elsa; Sistiaga, Manu; Herrmann, Bent; Arregi, Luis (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2022-01-20)
    Gear modifications in fisheries are usually implemented to obtain catch patterns that meet management objectives. In the Basque bottom trawl fishery, gear regulations include the use of a square mesh panel (SMP) placed at the top panel of the extension piece of the trawl to supplement diamond mesh codend selectivity. However, the catch patterns obtained with this combination have raised concern ...
  • Sequence-Based Analysis of Eukaryotic Protein Evolution 

    Bockwoldt, Mathias (Doctoral thesis; Doktorgradsavhandling, 2018-10-12)
    The goal of this thesis was to comprehend evolutionary patterns in different contexts. To get a broad spectrum of methods, three projects were included of which one is published and two are in preparation. In the first project, we looked into the fate of new mutations in protein regions that do not have a defined three-dimensional structure. Generally, the fate of a new mutation is governed by ...
  • Somatic Dimorphism in Cercariae of a Bird Schistosome 

    Soldánová, Miroslava; Kundid, Petra; Scholz, Tomas; Kristoffersen, Roar; Knudsen, Rune (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2022-02-24)
    Phenotypic polymorphism is a commonly observed phenomenon in nature, but extremely rare in free-living stages of parasites. We describe a unique case of somatic polymorphism in conspecific cercariae of the bird schistosome Trichobilharzia sp. “peregra”, in which two morphs, conspicuously different in their size, were released from a single Radix balthica snail. A detailed morphometric analysis ...
  • Effects of life-history traits and network topological characteristics on the robustness of marine food webs 

    Merillet, Laurene; Robert, Marianne; Hernvann, Pierre-Yves; Pecuchet, Laurene; Pavoine, Sandrine; Mouchet, Maud; Primicerio, Raul; Kopp, Dorothée (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2022-02-08)
    Management targets for biodiversity preservation are shifting from individual species to an ecosystem-wide focus. Indeed, the perturbation analysis of interaction networks, such as food webs, better captures the response of biodiversity to environmental pressures than single-species considerations. Here we propose a framework that examines food web robustness to a given perturbation based on ...
  • Early Evolutionary Selection of NAD Biosynthesis Pathway in Bacteria 

    Sharma, Suraj; Hsieh, Yin-Chen; Dietze, Jørn; Bockwoldt, Mathias; Strømland, Øyvind; Ziegler, Mathias; Heiland, Ines (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2022-06-21)
    Bacteria use two alternative pathways to synthesize nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) from nicotinamide (Nam). A short, two-step route proceeds through nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) formation, whereas the other pathway, a four-step route, includes the deamidation of Nam and the reamidation of nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide (NAAD) to NAD. In addition to having twice as many enzymatic ...
  • Can biodegradable materials reduce plastic pollution without decreasing catch efficiency in longline fishery? 

    Cerbule, Kristine; Grimaldo, Eduardo; Herrmann, Bent; Larsen, Roger B.; Brčić, Jure; Vollstad, Jørgen (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2022-03-23)
    Longlining is a widely used fishing method. During longline fishing, some of the snoods connecting the hooks to the mainline are often lost at sea. Since snoods are made of nylon or polyester, lost snoods contribute to marine plastic pollution. Replacing nylon or polyester with a new material made of biodegradable plastics can potentially reduce macro- and microplastic pollution that is caused by ...
  • Food and chemical substances relevant for monitoring. Report from the Scientific Steering Committee of the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment. 

    Svendsen, Camilla; Amlund, Heidi; Carlsen, Monica Hauger; Eriksen, Gunnar Sundstøl; Husøy, Trine; Lillegaard, Inger Therese Laugsand; Mathisen, Gro Haarklou; Medin, Anine Christine; Ørnsrud, Robin; Agdestein, Angelika; Bergh, Øivind; Bodin, Johanna; Bruzell, Ellen; Elvevoll, Edel O.; Hessen, Dag Olav; Hofshagen, Merethe; Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Krogdahl, Åshild; Nilsen, Asbjørn Magne; Rafoss, Trond; Skjerdal, Taran; Steffensen, Inger-Lise Karin; Strand, Tor A.; Velle, Gaute; Hemre, Gro Ingunn; Vandvik, Vigdis; Alexander, Jan (Research report; Forskningsrapport, 2022)
    At request from the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA), VKM has identified food groups and food items consumed by the Norwegian population that are relevant for monitoring regarding content of one or more undesirable chemical substances (Figure 1). Undesirable chemical substances were defined as chemical substances in food that may constitute a potential health risk.<p> <p>VKM has created ...
  • Overview of the MOSAiC expedition- Atmosphere 

    Shupe, Matthew D.; Rex, Markus; Blomquist, Byron; G. Persson, P. Ola; Schmale, Julia; Uttal, Taneil; Althausen, Dietrich; Angot, Hélène; Archer, Stephen; Bariteau, Ludovic; Beck, Ivo; Bilberry, John; Bucci, Silvia; Buck, Clifton; Boyer, Matt; Brasseur, Zoé; Brooks, Ian M.; Calmer, Radiance; Cassano, John; Castro, Vagner; Chu, David; Costa, David; Cox, Christopher J.; Creamean, Jessie; Crewell, Susanne; Dahlke, Sandro; Damm, Ellen; de Boer, Gijs; Deckelmann, Holger; Dethloff, Klaus; Dütsch, Marina; Ebell, Kerstin; Ehrlich, André; Ellis, Jody; Engelmann, Ronny; Fong, Allison A.; Frey, Markus M.; Gallagher, Michael R.; Ganzeveld, Laurens; Gradinger, Rolf Rudolf; Graeser, Jürgen; Greenamyer, Vernon; Griesche, Hannes; Griffiths, Steele; Hamilton, Jonathan; Heinemann, Günther; Helmig, Detlev; Herber, Andreas; Heuzé, Céline; Hofer, Julian; Houchens, Todd; Howard, Dean; Inoue, Jun; Jacobi, Hans-Werner; Jaiser, Ralf; Jokinen, Tuija; Jourdan, Olivier; Jozef, Gina; King, Wessley; Kirchgaessner, Amelie; Klingebiel, Marcus; Krassovski, Misha; Krumpen, Thomas; Lampert, Astrid; Landing, William; Laurila, Tiia; Lawrence, Dale; Lonardi, Michael; Loose, Brice; Lüpkes, Christof; Maahn, Maximilian; Macke, Andreas; Maslowski, Wieslaw; Marsay, Christopher; Maturilli, Marion; Mech, Mario; Morris, Sara; Moser, Manuel; Nicolaus, Marcel; Ortega, Paul; Osborn, Jackson; Pätzold, Falk; Perovich, Donald K.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Pilz, Christian; Pirazzini, Roberta; Posman, Kevin; Powers, Heath; Pratt, Kerri A.; Preußer, Andreas; Quéléver, Lauriane; Radenz, Martin; Rabe, Benjamin; Rinke, Annette; Sachs, Torsten; Schulz, Alexander; Siebert, Holger; Silva, Tercio; Solomon, Amy; Sommerfeld, Anja; Spreen, Gunnar; Stephens, Mark; Stohl, Andreas; Svensson, Gunilla; Uin, Janek; Viegas, Juarez; Voigt, Christiane; von der Gathen, Peter; Wehner, Birgit; Welker, Jeffrey M.; Wendisch, Manfred; Werner, Martin; Xie, ZhouQing; Yue, Fange (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2022-02-07)
    With the Arctic rapidly changing, the needs to observe, understand, and model the changes are essential. To support these needs, an annual cycle of observations of atmospheric properties, processes, and interactions were made while drifting with the sea ice across the central Arctic during the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC) expedition from October ...
  • Laksvel - Standardisert operasjonell velferdsovervåking for laks i matfiskanlegg 

    Nilsson, Jonatan; Gismervik, Kristine; Nielsen, Kristoffer Vale; Iversen, Martin Haugmo; Noble, Christopher; Kolarevic, Jelena; Frotjold, Hilde; Nilsen, Kathrine; Wilkinson, Eirik; Klakegg, Barbo; Hauge, Hege Sørvåg; Sæther, Per Anton; Kristiansen, Tore S; Stien, Lars Helge (Research report; Forskningsrapport, 2022)
    Selv om oppdrettere og fiskehelsepersonell har undersøkt og dokumentert velferden til laksen har det ikke funnes noen standardisert måte å gjøre dette på. Denne protokollen er laget for å kunne brukes som en felles standard.<p> <p>Når en lager en standardisert protokoll for rutinemessig overvåking av fiskevelferd er det mange hensyn å ta, og disse kan til dels være motstridende. Protokollen bør ...
  • Evaluering av helse, velferd og tilvekst hos steril laks etter embryonal blokkering av kimcellene 

    Andersen, Øivind; Tveiten, Helge; Thesslund, Tina; Kleppen, Hans-Petter (Research report; Forskningsrapport, 2022-04)
    Oppdrett av steril laks vil kunne redusere de negative interaksjonene mellom rømt oppdrettslaks og villaks, og dessuten forbedre fiskens velferd og kvalitet. Prosjektets hovedmål har vært å evaluere viktige produksjonsegenskaper hos steril laks etter å ha fjernet de embryonale kimcellene. Inaktivering av kimcellefaktoren Deadend ga livsvarig tap av kjønnsceller hos både hann- og hunnfisk. Steril ...

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